Architects plan and design buildings and other structures. Show Details
Architects typically do the following:
Seek new work by marketing and giving presentations
Consult with clients to determine requirements for structures
Estimate materials, equipment, costs, and construction time
Prepare, design, and structure specifications
Direct workers who prepare drawings and documents
Prepare scaled drawings of the project
Prepare contract documents for building contractors
Manage construction contracts
Visit worksites to ensure that construction adheres to architectural plans
People need places to live, work, play, learn, worship, meet, govern, shop, and eat. Architects are responsible for designing these places, whether they are private or public; indoors or outdoors; or rooms, buildings, or complexes.
Architects discuss with clients the objectives, requirements, and budget of a project. In some cases, architects provide various predesign services, such as feasibility and environmental impact studies, site selection, cost analyses and land-use studies, and design requirements. For example, architects may determine a building’s space requirements by researching its number and types of potential users.
After discussing and agreeing on the initial proposal, architects develop final construction plans that show the building's appearance and details for its construction. Accompanying these plans are drawings of the structural system; air-conditioning, heating, and ventilating systems; electrical systems; communications systems; plumbing; and, possibly, site and landscape plans.
In developing designs, architects must follow building codes, zoning laws, fire regulations, and other ordinances, such as those requiring easy access by people who are disabled.
Computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) and building information modeling (BIM) technology have replaced traditional drafting paper and pencil as the most common methods for creating designs and construction drawings.
Architects also may help clients get construction bids, select contractors, and negotiate construction contracts.
As construction proceeds, architects may visit building sites to ensure that contractors follow the design, keep to the schedule, use the specified materials, and meet work-quality standards. The job is not complete until all construction is finished, required tests are conducted, and construction costs are paid.
Glaziers install glass in windows, skylights, storefronts, and display cases to create distinctive designs or reduce the need for artificial lighting. Show Details
Glaziers typically do the following:
Follow blueprints or specifications for size, color, type, and thickness of glass to be used
Remove any old or broken glass before installing replacement glass
Cut glass to the specified size and shape
Make or install sashes or moldings for glass installation
Fasten glass into sashes or frames with clips, moldings, or other types of fasteners
Add weather seal or putty around pane edges to seal joints
Glass has many uses in modern life. For example, insulated and specially treated glass keeps in warm or cool air and controls sound and condensation. Tempered and laminated glass makes doors and windows more secure. The creative use of large windows, glass doors, skylights, and sunroom additions makes buildings bright, airy, and inviting. Glaziers specialize in installing these different glass products.
In homes, glaziers install or replace windows, mirrors, shower doors, and bathtub enclosures. They fit glass for tabletops and display cases. On commercial interior projects, glaziers install items such as heavy, often etched, decorative room dividers or security windows. Glazing projects also may involve replacing storefront windows for supermarkets, auto dealerships, banks, and so on.
For most large scale construction jobs, glass is precut and mounted into frames at a factory or a contractor's shop. The finished glass arrives at the jobsite ready for glaziers to position and secure into place. Using cranes or hoists with suction cups, workers lift large, heavy pieces of glass for installation. In cases where the glass is not secure inside the frame, glaziers may attach steel and aluminum sashes or frames to the building, and then secure the glass with clips, moldings, or other types of fasteners.
A few glaziers work with plastics, granite, marble, and other materials used as glass substitutes. Some work with films or laminates that improve the durability or safety of the glass.