Baxter Stone & Brick Repair

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Brickmasons, Blockmasons, and Stonemasons

Brickmasons, blockmasons, and stonemasons (or, simply, masons) use bricks, concrete blocks, and natural stones to build fences, walkways, walls, and other structures.

Masons typically do the following:

  • Read blueprints or drawings to calculate materials needed
  • Lay out patterns or foundations, using a straightedge
  • Break or cut bricks, stones, or blocks to their appropriate size
  • Mix mortar or grout and spread it onto a slab or foundation
  • Lay bricks, blocks, or stones according to plans
  • Clean excess mortar with trowels and other handtools
  • Construct corners with a corner pole or by building a corner pyramid
  • Ensure that a structure is perfectly vertical and horizontal, using a plumb bob and level
  • Clean and polish surfaces with hand or power tools
  • Fill expansion and contraction joints with the appropriate caulking materials

The following are common types of masons:

Brickmasons and blockmasons--who often are called bricklayers--build and repair walls, floors, partitions, fireplaces, chimneys, and other structures with brick, precast masonry panels, concrete block, and other masonry materials.

Pointing, cleaning, and caulking workers repair brickwork, particularly on older structures on which mortar has come loose. Special care must be taken not to damage the structural integrity or the existing bricks.

Refractory masons are brickmasons who specialize in installing firebrick and refractory tile in high-temperature boilers, furnaces, cupolas, ladles, and soaking pits in industrial establishments. Most of these workers are employed in steel mills, where molten materials flow on refractory beds from furnaces to rolling machines. They also are employed at oil refineries, glass furnaces, incinerators, and other locations with manufacturing processes that require high temperatures.

Stonemasons build stone walls, as well as set stone exteriors and floors. They work with two types of stone: natural-cut stone, such as marble, granite, and limestone; and artificial stone, made from concrete, marble chips, or other masonry materials. Using a special hammer or a diamond-blade saw, workers cut stone to make various shapes and sizes. Some stonemasons specialize in setting marble, which is similar to setting large pieces of stone.


Janitors and Building Cleaners

Janitors and building cleaners keep many types of buildings clean, orderly, and in good condition.

Janitors and building cleaners typically do the following:

  • Gather and empty trash and trash bins
  • Clean building floors by sweeping, mopping, or vacuuming them
  • Clean bathrooms and stock them with soap, toilet paper, and other supplies
  • Keep buildings secure by locking doors
  • Clean spills and other hazards using sponges and squeegees
  • Wash windows, walls, and glass
  • Order cleaning supplies
  • Make minor repairs to the building, such as changing light bulbs
  • Notify managers when the building needs major repairs

Janitors and building cleaning workers keep office buildings, schools, hospitals, retail stores, hotels, and other places clean, sanitary, and in good condition. Some do only cleaning, while others have a wide range of duties.

In addition to keeping the inside of buildings clean and orderly, some janitors and building cleaners work outdoors, mowing lawns, sweeping walkways, or shoveling snow. Some janitors also monitor the heating and cooling system, ensuring that it functions properly.

Janitors and building cleaners use many tools and equipment. Simple cleaning tools may include mops, brooms, rakes, and shovels. Other tools may include snowblowers and floor buffers.

Some janitors may be responsible for repairing small problems with electricity or plumbing, such as leaky faucets.


Brickmasons, Blockmasons, and Stonemasons

Brickmasons, blockmasons, and stonemasons (or, simply, masons) use bricks, concrete blocks, and natural stones to build fences, walkways, walls, and other structures.

Masons typically do the following:

  • Read blueprints or drawings to calculate materials needed
  • Lay out patterns or foundations, using a straightedge
  • Break or cut bricks, stones, or blocks to their appropriate size
  • Mix mortar or grout and spread it onto a slab or foundation
  • Lay bricks, blocks, or stones according to plans
  • Clean excess mortar with trowels and other handtools
  • Construct corners with a corner pole or by building a corner pyramid
  • Ensure that a structure is perfectly vertical and horizontal, using a plumb bob and level
  • Clean and polish surfaces with hand or power tools
  • Fill expansion and contraction joints with the appropriate caulking materials

The following are common types of masons:

Brickmasons and blockmasons--who often are called bricklayers--build and repair walls, floors, partitions, fireplaces, chimneys, and other structures with brick, precast masonry panels, concrete block, and other masonry materials.

Pointing, cleaning, and caulking workers repair brickwork, particularly on older structures on which mortar has come loose. Special care must be taken not to damage the structural integrity or the existing bricks.

Refractory masons are brickmasons who specialize in installing firebrick and refractory tile in high-temperature boilers, furnaces, cupolas, ladles, and soaking pits in industrial establishments. Most of these workers are employed in steel mills, where molten materials flow on refractory beds from furnaces to rolling machines. They also are employed at oil refineries, glass furnaces, incinerators, and other locations with manufacturing processes that require high temperatures.

Stonemasons build stone walls, as well as set stone exteriors and floors. They work with two types of stone: natural-cut stone, such as marble, granite, and limestone; and artificial stone, made from concrete, marble chips, or other masonry materials. Using a special hammer or a diamond-blade saw, workers cut stone to make various shapes and sizes. Some stonemasons specialize in setting marble, which is similar to setting large pieces of stone.


Cement Masons and Terrazzo Workers

Cement masons pour, smooth, and finish concrete floors, sidewalks, roads, and curbs. Using a cement mixture, terrazzo workers create durable and decorative surfaces for floors and stairways.

Cement masons typically do the following:

  • Set the forms that hold concrete in place
  • Install reinforcing rebar or mesh wire to strengthen the concrete
  • Signal truck drivers to facilitate the pouring of concrete
  • Spread, level, and smooth concrete, using a trowel, float, or screed
  • Mold expansion joints and edges
  • Monitor curing (hardening) to ensure a durable, smooth, and uniform finish
  • Apply sealants or waterproofing to protect concrete

Terrazzo workers typically do the following (in addition to what cement masons do):

  • Measure ingredients for terrazzo
  • Blend a marble chip mixture that may have colors in it 
  • Grind and polish surfaces for a smooth, lustrous look

Concrete is one of the most common and durable materials used in construction. Once set, concrete--a mixture of cement, sand, gravel, and water--becomes the foundation for everything from decorative patios and floors to huge dams or miles of roadways.

The following are types of cement masons and terrazzo workers:

Cement masons and concrete finishers place and finish concrete. They may color concrete surfaces, expose aggregate (small stones) in walls and sidewalks, or make concrete beams, columns, and panels.

Throughout the process of pouring, leveling, and finishing concrete, cement masons must monitor how the wind, heat, or cold affects the curing of the concrete. They must have a thorough knowledge of the characteristics of concrete so that, by using sight and touch, they can determine what is happening to the concrete and take measures to prevent defects.

Terrazzo workers and finishers create decorative walkways, floors, patios, and panels. Although much of the preliminary work in pouring, leveling, and finishing concrete is similar to that of cement masons, terrazzo workers create more decorative finishes by blending a fine marble chip into the cement, which is often colored. Once the terrazzo is thoroughly set, workers correct any depressions or imperfections with a grinder to create a smooth, uniform finish.


Janitors and Building Cleaners

Janitors and building cleaners keep many types of buildings clean, orderly, and in good condition.

Janitors and building cleaners typically do the following:

  • Gather and empty trash and trash bins
  • Clean building floors by sweeping, mopping, or vacuuming them
  • Clean bathrooms and stock them with soap, toilet paper, and other supplies
  • Keep buildings secure by locking doors
  • Clean spills and other hazards using sponges and squeegees
  • Wash windows, walls, and glass
  • Order cleaning supplies
  • Make minor repairs to the building, such as changing light bulbs
  • Notify managers when the building needs major repairs

Janitors and building cleaning workers keep office buildings, schools, hospitals, retail stores, hotels, and other places clean, sanitary, and in good condition. Some do only cleaning, while others have a wide range of duties.

In addition to keeping the inside of buildings clean and orderly, some janitors and building cleaners work outdoors, mowing lawns, sweeping walkways, or shoveling snow. Some janitors also monitor the heating and cooling system, ensuring that it functions properly.

Janitors and building cleaners use many tools and equipment. Simple cleaning tools may include mops, brooms, rakes, and shovels. Other tools may include snowblowers and floor buffers.

Some janitors may be responsible for repairing small problems with electricity or plumbing, such as leaky faucets.


Cement Masons and Terrazzo Workers

Cement masons pour, smooth, and finish concrete floors, sidewalks, roads, and curbs. Using a cement mixture, terrazzo workers create durable and decorative surfaces for floors and stairways.

Cement masons typically do the following:

  • Set the forms that hold concrete in place
  • Install reinforcing rebar or mesh wire to strengthen the concrete
  • Signal truck drivers to facilitate the pouring of concrete
  • Spread, level, and smooth concrete, using a trowel, float, or screed
  • Mold expansion joints and edges
  • Monitor curing (hardening) to ensure a durable, smooth, and uniform finish
  • Apply sealants or waterproofing to protect concrete

Terrazzo workers typically do the following (in addition to what cement masons do):

  • Measure ingredients for terrazzo
  • Blend a marble chip mixture that may have colors in it 
  • Grind and polish surfaces for a smooth, lustrous look

Concrete is one of the most common and durable materials used in construction. Once set, concrete--a mixture of cement, sand, gravel, and water--becomes the foundation for everything from decorative patios and floors to huge dams or miles of roadways.

The following are types of cement masons and terrazzo workers:

Cement masons and concrete finishers place and finish concrete. They may color concrete surfaces, expose aggregate (small stones) in walls and sidewalks, or make concrete beams, columns, and panels.

Throughout the process of pouring, leveling, and finishing concrete, cement masons must monitor how the wind, heat, or cold affects the curing of the concrete. They must have a thorough knowledge of the characteristics of concrete so that, by using sight and touch, they can determine what is happening to the concrete and take measures to prevent defects.

Terrazzo workers and finishers create decorative walkways, floors, patios, and panels. Although much of the preliminary work in pouring, leveling, and finishing concrete is similar to that of cement masons, terrazzo workers create more decorative finishes by blending a fine marble chip into the cement, which is often colored. Once the terrazzo is thoroughly set, workers correct any depressions or imperfections with a grinder to create a smooth, uniform finish.


Brickmasons, Blockmasons, and Stonemasons

Brickmasons, blockmasons, and stonemasons (or, simply, masons) use bricks, concrete blocks, and natural stones to build fences, walkways, walls, and other structures.

Masons typically do the following:

  • Read blueprints or drawings to calculate materials needed
  • Lay out patterns or foundations, using a straightedge
  • Break or cut bricks, stones, or blocks to their appropriate size
  • Mix mortar or grout and spread it onto a slab or foundation
  • Lay bricks, blocks, or stones according to plans
  • Clean excess mortar with trowels and other handtools
  • Construct corners with a corner pole or by building a corner pyramid
  • Ensure that a structure is perfectly vertical and horizontal, using a plumb bob and level
  • Clean and polish surfaces with hand or power tools
  • Fill expansion and contraction joints with the appropriate caulking materials

The following are common types of masons:

Brickmasons and blockmasons--who often are called bricklayers--build and repair walls, floors, partitions, fireplaces, chimneys, and other structures with brick, precast masonry panels, concrete block, and other masonry materials.

Pointing, cleaning, and caulking workers repair brickwork, particularly on older structures on which mortar has come loose. Special care must be taken not to damage the structural integrity or the existing bricks.

Refractory masons are brickmasons who specialize in installing firebrick and refractory tile in high-temperature boilers, furnaces, cupolas, ladles, and soaking pits in industrial establishments. Most of these workers are employed in steel mills, where molten materials flow on refractory beds from furnaces to rolling machines. They also are employed at oil refineries, glass furnaces, incinerators, and other locations with manufacturing processes that require high temperatures.

Stonemasons build stone walls, as well as set stone exteriors and floors. They work with two types of stone: natural-cut stone, such as marble, granite, and limestone; and artificial stone, made from concrete, marble chips, or other masonry materials. Using a special hammer or a diamond-blade saw, workers cut stone to make various shapes and sizes. Some stonemasons specialize in setting marble, which is similar to setting large pieces of stone.


Cement Masons and Terrazzo Workers

Cement masons pour, smooth, and finish concrete floors, sidewalks, roads, and curbs. Using a cement mixture, terrazzo workers create durable and decorative surfaces for floors and stairways.

Cement masons typically do the following:

  • Set the forms that hold concrete in place
  • Install reinforcing rebar or mesh wire to strengthen the concrete
  • Signal truck drivers to facilitate the pouring of concrete
  • Spread, level, and smooth concrete, using a trowel, float, or screed
  • Mold expansion joints and edges
  • Monitor curing (hardening) to ensure a durable, smooth, and uniform finish
  • Apply sealants or waterproofing to protect concrete

Terrazzo workers typically do the following (in addition to what cement masons do):

  • Measure ingredients for terrazzo
  • Blend a marble chip mixture that may have colors in it 
  • Grind and polish surfaces for a smooth, lustrous look

Concrete is one of the most common and durable materials used in construction. Once set, concrete--a mixture of cement, sand, gravel, and water--becomes the foundation for everything from decorative patios and floors to huge dams or miles of roadways.

The following are types of cement masons and terrazzo workers:

Cement masons and concrete finishers place and finish concrete. They may color concrete surfaces, expose aggregate (small stones) in walls and sidewalks, or make concrete beams, columns, and panels.

Throughout the process of pouring, leveling, and finishing concrete, cement masons must monitor how the wind, heat, or cold affects the curing of the concrete. They must have a thorough knowledge of the characteristics of concrete so that, by using sight and touch, they can determine what is happening to the concrete and take measures to prevent defects.

Terrazzo workers and finishers create decorative walkways, floors, patios, and panels. Although much of the preliminary work in pouring, leveling, and finishing concrete is similar to that of cement masons, terrazzo workers create more decorative finishes by blending a fine marble chip into the cement, which is often colored. Once the terrazzo is thoroughly set, workers correct any depressions or imperfections with a grinder to create a smooth, uniform finish.


Laundry and Dry-cleaning Workers

Laundry and dry-cleaning workers clean clothing, linens, drapes, and other articles, using washing, drying, and dry-cleaning machines. They also may clean leather, suede, furs, and rugs.

Laundry and dry-cleaning workers typically do the following:

  • Receive items from customers and mark them with codes or names
  • Inspect articles for stains and fabrics that require special care
  • Sort articles to be cleaned by fabric type, color, and cleaning technique
  • Load clothing into laundry and dry-cleaning machines
  • Add detergent, bleach, and other chemicals to laundry and dry-cleaning machines
  • Remove, sort, and hang clothing and other articles after they are removed from the machines
  • Clean and maintain laundry and dry-cleaning machines

Laundry and dry-cleaning workers ensure proper cleaning of clothing, linens, and other articles. They adjust machine settings for a given fabric or article, as determined by the cleaning instructions on each item of clothing.

When necessary, workers treat spots and stains on articles before washing or dry-cleaning. They monitor machines during the cleaning process and ensure that items are not lost or placed with items of another customer.

Sometimes, laundry and dry-cleaning workers interact with customers. They take the receipts, find the customer's clothing, take payment, make change, and do the cash register work that retail sales people do.

Some dry-cleaners offer alteration services. Often, sewers and tailors do these tasks, but some laundry and dry-cleaning workers do them as well. For more information, see the profile on sewers and tailors.


Brickmasons, Blockmasons, and Stonemasons

Brickmasons, blockmasons, and stonemasons (or, simply, masons) use bricks, concrete blocks, and natural stones to build fences, walkways, walls, and other structures.

Masons typically do the following:

  • Read blueprints or drawings to calculate materials needed
  • Lay out patterns or foundations, using a straightedge
  • Break or cut bricks, stones, or blocks to their appropriate size
  • Mix mortar or grout and spread it onto a slab or foundation
  • Lay bricks, blocks, or stones according to plans
  • Clean excess mortar with trowels and other handtools
  • Construct corners with a corner pole or by building a corner pyramid
  • Ensure that a structure is perfectly vertical and horizontal, using a plumb bob and level
  • Clean and polish surfaces with hand or power tools
  • Fill expansion and contraction joints with the appropriate caulking materials

The following are common types of masons:

Brickmasons and blockmasons--who often are called bricklayers--build and repair walls, floors, partitions, fireplaces, chimneys, and other structures with brick, precast masonry panels, concrete block, and other masonry materials.

Pointing, cleaning, and caulking workers repair brickwork, particularly on older structures on which mortar has come loose. Special care must be taken not to damage the structural integrity or the existing bricks.

Refractory masons are brickmasons who specialize in installing firebrick and refractory tile in high-temperature boilers, furnaces, cupolas, ladles, and soaking pits in industrial establishments. Most of these workers are employed in steel mills, where molten materials flow on refractory beds from furnaces to rolling machines. They also are employed at oil refineries, glass furnaces, incinerators, and other locations with manufacturing processes that require high temperatures.

Stonemasons build stone walls, as well as set stone exteriors and floors. They work with two types of stone: natural-cut stone, such as marble, granite, and limestone; and artificial stone, made from concrete, marble chips, or other masonry materials. Using a special hammer or a diamond-blade saw, workers cut stone to make various shapes and sizes. Some stonemasons specialize in setting marble, which is similar to setting large pieces of stone.


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